This chemical is an aromatic hydrocarbon used in hydrocarbon fuels. In combustion processes it contributes to the formation of mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds such as benzo a pyrene. Cap and Trade - for carbon regulation, a method of decreasing carbon emissions by setting annual regulatory limits on large, industrial CO 2 emitters and fining them if they surpass that limit. Emitters that can decrease their annual CO 2 emissions are allowed to sell the rights to emit the balance to other emitters which can't as easily decrease emissions.
These traded emission right prices are set by the market and, in theory, these trades allow those who need to purchase the emission rights a chance to save money over the fines. Gradually the regulatory emission limits, the caps , are lowered and this pushes total emissions down over time. A system like this has been in place for sulfur dioxide emissions in the US since the s and for NO x since This can be contrasted with a carbon tax. Carbon 14 - 14 C, an isotope of carbon 12 C. While carbon is not radioactive, the half life of 14 C is years. This relatively short half life allows the ratio of carbon to carbon to be used to date objects containing carbon to an age of 50, years before present time.
Carbonate-Based Carbon Dioxide Capture - Carbon dioxide in combustion-produced flue gases can be dissolved in carbonate-containing solutions to form bicarbonates, thereby concentrating CO 2 for subsequent sequestration. Heating of the bicarbonate-containing solution releases CO 2 , reforming carborbonates which can be recycled. A molten carbonate fuel cell technology is also under development. Carbon Cycle - A complex cycle that circulates carbon through the atmosphere, oceans, and land which includes vegetation and soil and carbon is in various forms and oxidation states throughout the cycle.
Carbon Dioxide - CO 2 , a volatile compound consisting of one carbon and two oxygens. It is a reactant in photosynthesis and necessary for plant life, and is abundant in the atmosphere due to anthropogenic and natural activities. It is a greenhouse gas. David Keeling was instrumental in establishing the first, high precision, continuous measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The continuous, upward sloping plot of atmospheric CO 2 concentration versus times is eponymously known as the Keeling curve. Ice core data from the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica show that present atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 and CH 4 are the highest in the past , years as determined in the so-called Dome C ice core.
Keeling, S. Piper, R.
Bacastow, M. Wahlen, T. Whorf, M. Heimann, and H. Meijer; pp. Cerling, M. Carbon Disulfide - CS 2 , a compound used to manufacture products such as rayon and cellophane. Carbon disulfide is produced naturally by microbial activity in marshes and in volcanic ash.
Since carbon disulfide does not adhere well to sediments, if it comes into contact with soil, it could percolate into groundwater, where it is very soluble. CS 2 can also add to photochemical smog development when it reacts with other organic substances in the atmosphere, such as methane or oxides of nitrogen.
Carbon Monoxide - CO, a toxic, odorless, colorless gas produced during fossil fuel or biomass burning. Compound consisting of one carbon and one oxygen. Except for carbon dioxide, it is one of the longest lived naturally occurring atmospheric carbon compounds this wording is meant to exclude chlorofluorocarbons. The recent change in tropospheric CO content may portend a change in the balance between oxidants and reductants in the atmosphere. Carbon Sequestration - A method of capturing carbon dioxide so that it is not released into the atmosphere; also called carbon storage.
This is a proposed response to the increase of CO 2 in the atmospheremostly from anthropogenic sources since the industrial revolution. That mix reacts with high temperature steam to produce H 2 and CO 2 which is captured. H 2 is burned to produce energy. Even more difficult is collecting CO 2 from the atmosphere at ambient concentrations in tropospheric air. Carbon dioxide produced by hydrocarbon combustion can be pressurized and injected into old salt mines or used in enhanced oil recovery.
Carbon Tax - A monetary dividend, which is agreed to be paid in order to emit carbon dioxide from such sources as burning of fossil fuels and biofuels. It acts as a central mechanism for reducing carbon emissions in the Earth's atmosphere.
This can be contrasted with cap and trade. Carbon Tetrachloride - CCl 4 , a compound consisting of a carbon and 4 chlorines that is active in ozone depletion when the compound is broken down and releases chlorine atoms radicals. Chlorine reacts with the ozone creating diatomic oxygen and chlorine monoxide which cycles back to chlorine radicals. Carbon Tetrafluoride - CF 4 , is known as Freon 14, carbon tetrafluoride is a stable, non-flammable, colorless gas. It absorbs light at 8 mm in the infrared , is very stable, and does not react with water.
This compound is theoretically considered a likely candidate for warming the earth during the next ice age. Characterized by glacial onsets and melting and massive migration and extinctions of species during this period.
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Carbonyl Sulfide - COS, a gas that is very stable and unreactive in the troposphere, but, it is thought, photolyzes to form carbon monoxide, CO, and sulfur, S, in the stratosphere. Through stratospheric chemical reactions, the sulfur atoms are converted to SO 2 and H 2 SO 4 which form sulfate aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei, but eventually settle into the troposphere and react to form sulfuric acid, a component of acid rain. Volcanic eruptions contribute some of this COS to the atmosphere.
The major biospheric sources of COS are thought to be biological. Catalytic Converter - An air pollution control device using the exhaust system of cars. The converter helps complete combustion of any fuel that was not burned in the engine and reduce the presence of other harmful emission concentrations.moirilcadovi.ga
Chemical reaction - Wikipedia
The converter changes the unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the exhaust into carbon dioxide and water vapor. The converter use chemical catalysis to create this change. Ecology A to Z. Dillon Press, New York. Catalytic Destruction of Ozone - In the stratosphere, anthropogenic chlorine, mostly from chlorofluorocarbons is released as atomic chlorine a radical and becomes involved in a chemical cycle that destroys stratospheric ozone:.
CCCLIX.—The photochemical union of hydrogen and chlorine. Part I. The effect of light intensity
Atmospheric data have recently shown that the systematic banning of anthropogenic chlorine-containing compounds, CFCs such as Freon and Freon, beginning with the Montreal Protocol in , have stopped the degradation of stratospheric ozone, and a healing of this important atmospheric component is underway. Chappuis Band of Ozone Absorption - The wavelengths of light absorbed by ozone in the visible region, approximately to nm.
Compare to ozone's ultraviolet absorption region, the Hartley-Huggins band. Chemical Lifetime - The length of time a chemical species can survive without reacting, photolyzing, dissociating, or otherwise changing into another chemical species. Highly reactive chemicals have short lifetimes. For instance, if the reaction rate of a target species with an attacking species is very fast then the lifetime of the target species will be short. For example, the reaction of smalls radicals like hydroxyl radical in the troposphere is very fast with many common tropospheric species, and therefore the tropospheric lifetime of hydroxyl radical is measured in seconds.
Chloracne - A painful, disfiguring condition similar to common acne that it caused by people being exposed to high concentrations of PCB's polychlorinated biphenyls. It is a biological response to the exposure of different types of organochlorine compounds. Chlorine - Cl 2 , molecular chlorine. Science — Google Scholar. Crutzen PJ The influence of nitrogen oxides on the atmospheric ozone content. Crutzen PJ Ozone production rates in oxygen-hydrogen-nitrogen oxide atmosphere.
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The photochemistry of the paleoatmosphere
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