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This collection of essays is the first to apply postcolonial theory to the Middle Ages, and to critique that theory through the excavation of a distant past. Jeffrey Jerome Cohen, Hybridity, Identity, and Monstrosity in Medieval Britain: On Difficult Middles This study examines the monsters that haunt twelfth-century British texts, arguing that in these strange bodies are expressed fears and fantasies about community, identity, and race during the period.

Jeffrey Jerome Cohen finds the origins of these monsters in a contemporary obsession with blood, both the literal and metaphorical kind. Jeffrey Jerome Cohen ed. The contributors to this volume seek moments of cultural admixture and heterogeneity within texts that have often been assumed to belong to a single, national canon, discovering moments when familiar and bounded space erupt into unexpected diversity and infinite realms.

The book explores the important legislative changes that took place when women were made personally responsible for their own crimes. Here, however, leading historians argue that racism can be traced back to the attitudes of the ancient Greeks to their Persian enemies and that it was adopted, adjusted and re-formulated by Europeans right through until the dawn of the Enlightenment.

In so doing this book offers a major reassessment of the place of racism in pre-modern European thought. Jonathan Elukin, Living Together, Living Apart: Rethinking Jewish-Christian Relations in the Middle Ages Jonathan Elukin traces the experience of Jews in Europe from late antiquity through the Renaissance and Reformation, revealing how the pluralism of medieval society allowed Jews to feel part of their local communities despite recurrent expressions of hatred against them. Steven Epstein, Purity Lost: Transgressing Boundaries in the Eastern Mediterranean, — Purity Lost investigates the porous nature of social, political, and religious boundaries prevalent in the eastern Mediterranean—from the Black Sea to Egypt—during the Middle Ages.

Drawing on examples from daily life and interstate politics, Steven Epstein takes a close look at the renegades and rule-breakers of this era. Epstein reveals the modern view of cultural, ethnic, and religious purity in the early modern Mediterranean as a mirage, and he offers new insights into how present-day conceptions about creed, color, ethnicity, and language originated. He journeyed from Baghdad to Bukhara in Central Asia and then continued across the desert to the town of Bulghar, near present Kazan.

He describes the tribes he meets on his way and gives an account of their customs. His is the earliest account of a meeting with the Vikings, called Rus, who had reached the Volga River from Sweden. His description of the Rus, or Rusiya as he calls them, has produced much discussion about their origins, shockingly free sexual morals standards, customs, treatment of slaves and women, burial traditions, and trading habits, all explained in detail by Ibn Fadlan.

The story of his travels has fascinated scholars and even prompted Michael Crichton to write the popular novel Eaters of the Dead, which was made into a film entitled The 13th Warrior. The Myth of the Andalusian Paradise shines light on hidden history by drawing on an abundance of primary sources that scholars have ignored, as well as archaeological evidence only recently unearthed. Jerold C. Frakes ed.

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Andrew Gillett ed. The authors in this volume explore new ways to understand barbarians in the early Middle Ages, and to analyze the images of the period constructed by modern scholarship. Guy Halsall, Barbarian Migrations and the Roman West, — This is a major survey of the barbarian migrations and their role in the fall of the Roman Empire and the creation of early medieval Europe.

Unlike previous studies it integrates historical and archaeological evidence and discusses Britain, Ireland, mainland Europe and North Africa, demonstrating that the Roman Empire and its neighbors were inextricably linked. Guy Halsall reveals that the creation and maintenance of kingdoms and empires was impossible without the active involvement of people in the communities of Europe and North Africa.

He concludes that, contrary to most opinions, the fall of the Roman Empire produced the barbarian migrations, not vice versa. Stephen J. From Bede in the eighth century to Geoffrey of Monmouth in the twelfth, Harris explores the intersections of race and literature before the rise of imagined communities.

The Birth of the West: Rome, Germany, France, and the Creation of Europe in the Tenth Century

Harris demonstrates how King Alfred adapted Bede in the ninth century; how both exerted an effect on Archbishop Wulfstan in the eleventh; and how Old English poetry speaks to images of race. Abstract from Research Gate. Geraldine Heng, Empire of Magic. Medieval Romance and the Politics of Cultural Fantasy. Drawing on feminist and gender theory, as well as cultural analyses of race, class, and colonialism, this provocative book revises our understanding of the beginnings of the nine hundred-year-old cultural genre we call romance, as well as the King Arthur legend.

Geraldine Heng argues that romance arose in the twelfth century as a cultural response to the trauma and horror of taboo acts—in particular the cannibalism committed by crusaders on the bodies of Muslim enemies in Syria during the First Crusade. Looking beyond the view of the plague as unmitigated catastrophe, Herlihy finds evidence for its role in the advent of new population controls, the establishment of universities, the spread of Christianity, the dissemination of vernacular cultures, and even the rise of nationalism.

This volume provides the reader with the possibility to appreciate and understand the complexity of Jewish-Christian-Muslim relations in the North. Juxtaposing literary works with contemporaneous Latin and French civic records, mixed-language merchant miscellanies, and bilingual phrasebooks, Jonathan Hsy illustrates how languages commingled in late medieval and early modern cities.

Sylvia Huot, Outsiders: The Humanity and Inhumanity of Giants in Medieval French Prose Romance Focusing on medieval French prose romance and drawing on aspects of postcolonial theory, Sylvia Huot examines the role of giants in constructions of race, class, gender, and human subjectivity. Huot argues that the presence of giants allows for fantasies of ethnic and cultural conflict and conquest, and for the presentation—and suppression—of alternative narrative and historical trajectories that might have made Arthurian Britain a very different place.

By the early eleventh century, the empire was the most powerful state in the Mediterranean. Yet this imperial project came to a crashing collapse fifty years later, when political disunity, fiscal mismanagement, and defeat at the hands of the Seljuks in the east and the Normans in the west brought an end to Byzantine hegemony. Streams of Gold, Rivers of Blood offers new interpretations of key topics relevant to the medieval era. This briskly paced and thoroughly investigated narrative vividly brings to life one of the most exciting and transformative eras of medieval history. Here Kemp recounts in vivid, unembarrassed detail the madness that followed the birth of the first of her fourteen children, the failure of her brewery business, her dramatic call to the spiritual life, her visions and uncontrollable tears, the struggle to convert her husband to a vow of chastity, and her pilgrimages to Europe and the Holy Land.

Margery Kempe could not read or write, and dictated her remarkable story late in life. It remains an extraordinary record of human faith and a portrait of a medieval woman of unforgettable character and courage. It provides comprehensive coverage of events across the whole of the region from to the fall of Granada in Hugh Kennedy raises the profile of this important area, bringing the subject alive with vivid translations from Arab sources. This will be fascinating reading for historians of medieval Europe and for historians of the Middle East drawing out the similarities and contrasts with other areas of the Muslim world.

Aisha Khan, Avicenna Ibn Sina : Muslim Physician and Philosopher of the Eleventh Century This book presents the life and accomplishments of the medieval philosopher and scientist Ibn Sina, who made monumental contributions to the fields of medicine, natural history, metaphysics, and religion. Shirin A. Keechang Kim, Aliens in Medieval Law: The Origins of Modern Citizenship In this original reinterpretation of the legal status of foreigners in medieval England, Keechang Kim proposes a radically new understanding of the genesis of the modern legal regime and the important distinction between citizens and noncitizens.

Making full use of medieval and early modern sources, the book examines how feudal legal arguments were transformed by the political theology of the Middle Ages to become the basis of the modern legal outlook. Joel L. Joel Kraemer draws on a wealth of original sources to re-create a remarkable period in history when Jewish, Christian, and Muslim traditions clashed and mingled in a setting alive with intense intellectual exchange and religious conflict. Steven Kruger, The Spectral Jew: Conversion and Embodiment in Medieval Europe Medieval European culture encompassed Judaic, Christian, Muslim, and pagan societies, forming a complex matrix of religious belief, identity, and imagination.

Through incisive readings of a broad range of medieval texts and informed by post-structuralist, queer, and feminist theories, The Spectral Jew traces the Jewish presence in Western Europe to show how the body, gender, and sexuality were at the root of the construction of medieval religious anxieties, inconsistencies, and instabilities.

By putting the conversion narrative at the center of this analysis, Kruger exposes it as a disruption of categories rather than a smooth passage and reveals the prominent role Judaism played in the medieval Christian imagination. By cataloguing and explicating the complex depictions of semitisms to be found in medieval literature and material culture, this volume argues that Jews were always present in medieval England.

Carolyne Larrington transl. In this great collection of Norse-Icelandic mythological and heroic poetry, the exploits of gods and humans are related. The one-eyed Odin, red-bearded Thor, Loki the trickster, the lovely goddesses and the giants who are their enemies walk beside the heroic Helgi, Sigurd the Dragon-Slayer, Brynhild the shield-maiden, and the implacable Gudrun.

New in this revised translation are the quest-poems The Lay of Svipdag and The Waking of Angantyr , in which a girl faces down her dead father to retrieve his sword.


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England also enforced legislation demanding that Jews wear a badge of infamy, and in , it became the first European nation to expel forcibly all of its Jewish residents. Drawing on literary, historical, and cartographic texts, she charts an entangled Jewish imaginative presence in English culture. Historians either have studied this empire piecemeal—one territory at a time—or have focused on monarchs endeavoring to mandate the allegiance of far-flung territories to the crown.

For Yuen-Gen Liang, these approaches do not adequately explain the forces that connected the territories that the Spanish empire comprised. It examines the content of these theological confrontations with a sense of present-day relevance, while also discussing the use made of scriptural proof-texts.

A new introduction reviews the relevant literature that has been published since the original edition appeared. In this beautifully illustrated two-volume study, Ruth Mellinkoff has assembled and analyzed an extraordinary compilation of pictorial signs motifs, attributes, and other artistic devices used by medieval artists to identify and denigrate those figures deemed outcasts, such as Jews, heretics, Muslims, blacks, executioners, prostitutes, lepers, gamblers, foot soldiers, entertainers, and peasants.

Mellinkoff focuses on art from northern Europe, with examples culled principally from the thirteenth into the middle of the sixteenth century.

Nature of the empire

The first text to offer a complete survey of the field, this volume provides the most up-to-date insights of leading international scholars. Robert I.

Europe in 10th,11th, Century AD

Moore, The Formation of a Persecuting Society: Authority and Deviance in Western Europe, — The tenth to the thirteenth centuries in Europe saw the appearance of popular heresy and the establishment of the Inquisition, the expropriation and mass murder of Jews, and the propagation of elaborate measures to segregate lepers from the healthy and curtail their civil rights.

In this stimulating book, first published in and now widely regarded as a classic in medieval history, Robert I. Moore argues that the coincidences in the treatment of these and other minority groups cannot be explained independently, and that all are part of a pattern of persecution which now appeared for the first time to make Europe become, as it has remained, a persecuting society. Chop in pieces, stir, and glue together more or less at random.

You now have something reasonably close to the picture that emerges from The Birth of the West , pages of century history as presented by the Australian author and broadcaster Paul Collins. The reader is left wondering whether the chaos is a bug or a feature, a failure of the author to shape his material into a coherent story or a deliberate attempt to show the reader the chaos of the period. Collins does have a thesis, indeed two.

The first is that "it was precisely from the chaos of the tenth century that the Western world in which we now live was born. People lived in fear and chaos. Vikings launched raids with impunity, Saracen Muslim pirates terrorized the Italian coastline seeking slaves, the Magyars Hungarians terrorized much of Germany and over the alps into Italy, and the breakdown of central government meant that ordinary people across Western Europe, but particularly in France, often lived in terror of local nobles, who were really just thugs….

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Holy Roman Empire | Definition, History, Capital, & Significance | atucifurog.ga

Yet by the end of the century, order had been restored in Germany, owing almost entirely to the recently converted Saxons, who were the first to bring some political organization to the heartland of Europe. In fact, this book's subtitle might well have been 'How the Germans Saved Civilization' by restoring a working central government.

To his credit, Collins makes it clear that his working central government was not very central, that "power in medieval society was noncentralized, consensual, and consultative, even if the consent was limited to the more powerful"—in short, that it was what other historians would describe as feudal , a term he disapproves of for somewhat unclear reasons. Considered as a collection of historical facts, the book is informative, although slow reading.

So far as his theses go, I find the first close to meaningless. Collins focuses on the Holy Roman Empire, which one could, with some stretch, view as the nucleus of the later states of central and eastern Europe. But the close of the 10th century saw the Byzantine Empire still very much a going concern, a substantial chunk of Europe in which classical antiquity had not yet ended. Spain was still mostly under Muslim rule, and Italy would remain a geographical expression for another eight centuries and more.

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The papacy, later to become a central institution of medieval Europe, was a joke, St. Peter's throne belonging to whomever the Roman clans, or some powerful figure in northern Italy, or the Holy Roman Emperor when he got around to bringing an army south through the Alpine passes, happened to favor at the moment.

Collins describes in detail the papacy's most exotic scene, when a dead pope's body was exhumed by his successor to be tried for heresy. The western world we know was born in the 10th century. Or the eighth. Or the 14th. Or perhaps…. The second thesis is more interesting. By the end of the 10th century, the problem of Viking, Magyar, and Saracen raids had been largely eliminated, but it is not clear how much of the credit should go to the rise of central government in general or to the heroes of Collins' story—the Saxon dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors—in particular.

A skeptical reader will notice that Ireland, with nothing close to a central government, was at least as successful against the Vikings as France or the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. To many historians, it was a prime example of the ignorance and uncertainty of the Dark Ages. Yet according to historian Paul Collins, the story of the tenth century is the story of our culture's birth, of the emergence of our civilization into the light of day.

The Birth of the West tells the story of a transformation from chaos to order, exploring the alien landscape of Europe in transition.