The authorship of R. Before the Closed Doors of an Open Trial , Ilia Gabai's essay about the trial October of the participants of the Red Square demonstration of 25 August Three Additions to I. Gorbanevskaia's additions to I. See also AS Petr Grigorenko's essay about forceful isolation of dissidents in the Soviet Union. Sakharov's Letter to L. Brezhnev] , Letter calling for openness in the Soviet system.
Thoughts on Intellectual Freedom. A response to Academician A. Sakharov , Response of Father S. Contents: expulsion of A. Gavrilov and others; arrest of V. Gershuni; arrests of Moscow students; detainment, arrest and trial of V. Krasin; arrest of N. Gorbanevskaia; trial of V. Borisov Leningrad ; trial of G. Altunian; repressions against the members of Initiative Group; extrajudicial political persecution; news of samizdat; short messages; updates and corrections; repressions of the year Anonymous article about national identification of a Soviet Jew, probably written by B.
Request of permission to emigrate in Israel. Open Letter of 11 Jewish women to women of the world with the appeal to ask the Soviet government to grant them permission for emigration to Israel. Human Rights Commission] , Request for permission to emigrate from the USSR. Proposal of fundamental political reforms and transformation of the country to free democratic society. Appeal related to the outcome of the Tashkent trial of Petr Grigorenko - his forced treatment in a psychiatric hospital.
Grigorenko's Short Chronicle] , Diary describing cruel and illegal actions committed against the author during Confinement in Tashkent KGB isolation prison Uzbekistan. Petr Grigorenko's commentary on his Short Chronicle see AS with conclusions about the meaning of the authorities' actions against him that took place in Uzbekistan.
Petr Grigorenko's account of removal from Tashkent prison to the Serbskii Institute in Moscow for a second psychiatric examination. Request for help in obtaining permission to emigrate to Israel. Gollan] , ca. The account on the author's unsuccessful attempt to emigrate to Israel. Candau] , Request for help with finding a job after being fired for the refusal to work on the holiday Yom Kippur. Collection of Letters to the Editor in Chief of Literaturnaia Gazeta in relation to his publications in the newspaper see AS 43, , , , Letter criticizing Chakovskii's article for using V.
Tarsis's case as relevant to Galanskov-Ginzburg trial see AS Demand to release Petr Grigorenko and bring his tormentors to account. Grigorenko, the Wife and Son of General P. Grigorenko] , The letter expresses sympathy to the wife and son of General Petr Grigorenko and tells that the students learnt about the case from the leaflet prepared by the Swedish-Danish-Norwegian SMOG organization and that people are ready to sign the letter.
Bershtein and M. Fridel] , Letter discussing the article by L. Will the Soviet Union Survive until ? Futurological essay about crisis symptoms in Soviet society and the possible scenario of its disintegration. Statement about Soviet authorities' violation of the author's right to receive royalties from foreign publishers for his book "Will the Soviet Union Survive until ? Kuznetsov] , Letter criticizing A. Sakharov, V. Turchin and R. Brezhnev, A. Kosygin and N. Letter suggesting a program of democratic reform under the Party's guidance. Amal'rik's response to the article by G.
Bradsher in Washington Evening Star Amal'rik's Letter to the Journal Spiegel] , Response to the article about Amal'rik from Pamphlet a radio engineer V. Gerasimchuk criticizing the regime ethics which promotes theft of public property as a means of self-defense by citizens. A poem IU. Daniel', written in Mordovian prison camp. Request of persons total for help in emigration to Israel. Gabai and M. Dzhemilev; political trials around the USSR; the Gorky affair; news from the political prison camps of Mordovia; letters from Soviet Jews; supplementary material about the expulsion of Solzhenitsyn from the Union of Soviet Writers; foreigners in defense of Soviet political prisoners; news in brief; samizdat news; addenda and corrigenda.
Timofeeva and E. Galanskov] , Petition concerning Galanskov's difficult health condition. Article analyzing the structure of power in the USSR in the fields of the Economy and in foreign policy. Probably authors' names are pseudonyms. Gorbanevskaya's Commentary on the Letter of 95] , Commentary about the fate of the convicted participants of the Red Square Demonstration of 25 August against the invasion of Czechoslovakia see AS Iakir's Open Letter to A.
Amal'rik] , Critique of the book "Will the Soviet Union Survive until ? Smirnov parody on V. Seven major cases: Trial of history teacher and his students in Gorky on April; A. Levin's trial in Khar'kov; S. Gorbanevskaia's "insanity"; I. Philosophical essay by G. Signed with a pseudonym. Contents: political trials in Moscow, Khar'kov and Gor'kii; imprisonment in psychiatric hospitals for political reasons; the latest break-up pf a collective lobbying by the Crimean Tatars of the Soviet stare's highest authorities; the letter by A.
Medvedev to L. Podgorny; news in brief; samizdat news. Polemical article about manifestations of neo-Stalinism in Soviet memoir writing, citing examples of the plot to reverse the rehabilitation of F. Raskol'nikov's and reevaluate A. Eisner's memoirs about Spanish civil war. The author's real name is L. Human Rights Commission.
Request for help with emigration to Israel. Papernyi's parody on V. Reminder of the society's responsibility for the penal policy conducted in the USSR. A List of churches, 6 chapels and 12 historical monuments that existed in and were destroyed during the years of Soviet regime. Petrov-Agatov to Writer B. Polevoi] , Gendler, L. Kvachevskii and A. Studenkov] , Transcript of the trial in Leningrad city court.
The author's real mane is R. Solzhenitsyn's statement on the forceful placement of Zh. Medvedev in a psychiatric hospital. Letter protesting warnings of the Moscow militia to deport the author from Moscow under the anti-parasite law. From a Ferment of Minds to an Intellectual Movement , An essay proposing a systematic exchange of ideas among dissident intellectuals as a means of counteracting the effects of official censorship. Probably the author's name is a pseudonym.
Request for assistance in emigration to Israel. Open Letter to Prosecutor-General R. Rudenko in relation to the arrests for the attempt to hijack an aircraft in Leningrad so-called "aircraft affair". Response to the General D. Dragunskii , Collection of documents on the case of the Red Square demonstration of 25 August , edited by N.
Неизвестные трагедии Первой мировой
Letter about the conflict with the construction site authorities about housing conditions and the arrest of workers' delegation in Moscow. Iakir, A. Amal'rik and V. Bukovskii on CBS Television] , Cole on 28 July Attached is the audio tape with recorded voice of Ginzburg reportedly from the labor camp see OSA audio-video collection. Crimean Tatar Mournful Informatsia No. The issue reporting on reprisals against the representatives of the Crimean Tatars in Moscow for the period from 15 May to 1 June and addressed to the USSR leadership, public organization and all Soviet people. Report of the Crimean Tatar representatives in Moscow for the period October Report of the Crimean Tatar representatives in Moscow for the period November Crimean Tatar Informatsia No.
Text of the Indictment of R. Bairamov, A. Bariev, S. Ametova, M. Khalilova, R. Umerov, R. Eminov, I. Khairov, R. Kadyev, R. Gafarov, and I. It is appended by the list of 10 accused and witnesses AS a. Theses on the group structure of the Soviet society and the kinds of propaganda appeal which is appropriate for each. Complaint of a self-taught painter, not a member of the USSR Union of Artists, arrested for selling his works to foreigners. Volpin's open letter to A. Solzhenitsyn about the rights of persons considered insane with attached analysis of terms "diminished responsibility" and "incapacity".
Contents: day-by-day account of Zh. Medvedev's confinement in a psychiatric hospital in May-June ; news on A. Amal'rik's arrest; Grigorenko's confinement; V. Bukovskii's "Open Letter to Teodorakis" and letter to Washington Post; the Riazan trial of students in February ; collection of documents on Soviet censorship in ; news of samizdat. An article by B. Shragin under a pseudonym , highly evaluating the "inner freedom" of the arrested A. Protest against confinement of Zh. Medvedev for psychiatric observation. Letter about the right of Jews including the author, a Ukrainian Jew who spent 6 years in prison camp by accusation of Zionism for the repatriation to Israel.
Article about the destruction of Ukrainian traditions in the USSR and the resistance to the process of assimilation in Ukraine. Letter expressing support to B. The defended national causes are: Latvian, Lithuanian and Armenian. Very short two paragraph prayer, written by A. Solzhenitsyn after the publication of the novel "One Day of Ivan Denisovich. Essay about the visit to places in Leningrad, related to Aleksandr Blok, and meetings with people who knew the poet.
The author is probably film critic Neia Markovna Zorkaia. Contents: the trial of N. Gorbanevskaia; the trial of O. Iofe; the arrest of R. Pimenov; political trials in the cities of the Soviet Union; the case of A. Krasnov-Levitin; searches and arrests of Jews wishing to emigrate to Israel; in the Mordovian camps; extra-judicial persecution; news in brief; samizdat news; addenda and corrigenda.
Who Really Seduced Caliban? Response to M. Lifshits , A philosophical article by G. Pomerants about modernist art, disagreeing with M. Lifshits's article in Literaturnaia Gazeta from 8 October Request for help to emigrate from the Soviet Union to Israel. Brief contents: appeals and open letters; private letters; Soviet laws, decrees and instructions. Letter about persecutions for political reasons in the USSR. The request for help with emigration to Israel. Berebshtein and M. Kuznetsov and Excerpt from His Recorded Remarks] , Remarks made at an International Student Conference in Moscow on 18 October on the topic "The problem of freedom in the modern world.
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Kochubievskii's Letter to L. Shelest] , Demand for permission for emigration to Israel. Report is appended by biographical data on the 9 accused perpetrators in the so-called aircraft affair. Message on searches in Riga in the homes of Jews arrested in Leningrad on 15 June for alleged plane hijacking. Call for a boycott of scientific cooperation with the USSR until Zhores Medvedev is released from psychiatric hospital.
Request to release O. Iofe, V. Novodvorskaia, Petr Grigorenko and A. Information in relation to the so-called "aircraft affair. Demand to release of 8 Leningrad Jews accused of attempted plane hijacking, with allusions to Dreyfus case, "doctors' plot," etc. Excerpts from a long essay plus excerpts from Berozashvili's interrogation by psychiatrists. Request to be allowed the right to emigrate to Israel or else to be arrested on criminal charges. Report that a wide official campaign of persecution has begun against Baptist believers recently.
On Compulsory Hospitalization in Psychiatric Hospitals , Chalidze's article from the collection under his editorship "Obshchestvennye problemy," Vol. Request to support the authors' wish to emigrate to Israel.
HU OSA 300-85-9 Published Samizdat
Hambro and the Human Rights Commission] , ca. Request to support the authors' right to emigrate to Israel. Letter in Defense of Solzhenitsyn in relation to his Nobel Prize in literature. Principles of the Human Rights Committee , A manifesto-form document formulating essential principles of the independent creative association. Andrei Amalrik's memoirs about his exile in Fruitful Meetings Between Scientists of the World.
- Serfdom, Society, and the Arts in Imperial Russia: The Pleasure and the Power;
- Kornilov. Nesostoyavshijsya diktator.
- The Misuse of Persons: Analysing Pathological Dependency!
- Binders for Durable and Sustainable Concrete (Modern Concrete Technology).
- Центр документации новейшей истории Ульяновской области.
Secrecy of Correspondence Is Guardeed by Law. The papers elaborate on difficulties created by the Soviet authorities for Soviet scientists to maintain contacts with their Western colleagues. The Rise and Fall of T. Lysenko , ca. Essays on thirty-year-discussion in biological research in the Soviet Union.
Grossman elaborates on peculiarities of Russian soul and Russian history. Memoirs of Stalin's daughter S. Secrecy of Correspondence Is Guarded by Law. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's novel published in the West in On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences , - A photocopy of the manuscript by E. Bibliographical records of activists of the s Ukrainian national movement. The Technology of Power.
Formation of the CPSU , ca. Memoirs and historical essays of A. Cover page, preface and table of contents of a published book. The New Class. Analysis of the Communist System ,. Cover page and table of contents of a published book. Discussion of A. Transcribed notes of the two-day meetings. A photocopy from the book by A. Marchenko "My Testimony" published in Frankfurt by Posev publishing house in Sakharov protests against Zh. Medvedev's compulsory confinement for psychiatric observation on 29 May The article is devoted to the arrest of R.
Pimenov and investigation of his case. A Biographical Record of M. Kherkovich-Makarenko , Kherkovich-Makarenko is a former director of an art center in Novosibirsk's Academgorodok, recently sentenced to 8 years for political offenses. Appeal of O. The letter concerns expiration of the confinement term of her husband, I. The letter protests the sentence to R. Pimenov by Kaluga Court on 22 October The article is written before Amalrik's arrest in July The letter is written as a parody of Soviet press.
Samizdat journal devoted to social problems. Solzhenitsyn to the Nobel Prize Fund , Solzhenitsyn announces that he will not be able to attend the Stockholm Award Ceremony. The text of the letter released to press in Stockholm on 28 November The Congress was held in September in Menton, France. A collection of critical letters by B. Tsukerman to various Soviet governmental offices on a variety of civil rights topics. An Idle Conversation about Myths and Tales , Glazov writes about national, moral, religious, and public consciousness of Russians and Jews. Glazov writes about the destiny of the Jewish people, their place in Russian culture and society.
Transcript taken from tape recordings of the Radio Liberty Samizdat Archive. The statement concerns R. Pimenov's case. The letter requests some support for emigration to Israel. The journal tells the life stories of NKVD officers responsible for mass repressions. The couple describe the actions of the local authorities to deny their family of nine to settle in the Crimea. Beitullaev describes the actions of local officials to prevent his family to settle in the Crimea.
Letter of an Azerbaijani Man Islyam Musaev , ca. Musaev describes the attempts of his family his wife is a Crimean Tatar to settle the Crimea. Petition demands a new psychiatric expertise. Statement of a Crimean Tatar Mustafa Sakhat , ca. The statement is addressed to the UN Human Rights Commission concerning hostility of local officials towards Crimean Tatars willing to settle in the Crimea. The article concerns moral and psychological problems related to opposition of the Soviet regime.
Open Letter of 19 Friends of N. Gorbanevskaya, Titled Friends! The letter is written in defense of arrested V. Tel'nikov and IU. The friends and enemies of Solzhenitsyn. Iliasova describes the actions of local officials to prevent her family of four to settle in the Crimea. Smailov describes the actions of local officials to prevent his family of six to settle in the Crimea. Kashka describes the actions of local officials to prevent his family of seven to settle in the Crimea.
Akhtemovs describe the actions of local officials to prevent them to settle in the Crimea. Shabanov describes deportation of his family from the Crimea according to the court sentence. Seitmemetov writes about the discrimination of Crimean Tatars in the Crimea. Dzhepparov writes about the discrimination of Crimean Tatars in the Crimea and describes failed attempts of his family to settle there. Brezhnev] , ca.
Shpilberg asks to allow his family to emigrate to Israel. Bondar announces that he is going on a hunger strike. The telegram calls to allow all Jews wanting to emigrate to do so and to recall a death sentence for E. Kuznetsov and M. Transcript of trial proceedings that took place on December and of the sentence announced on 24 December Sakharov to the US President R. Sakharov calls for impartial consideration of Angela Davis case and to soften the punishment for those confined on the trial on attempted plane hijacking at the Smol'noe airport. Axelbank , Statement of A. Has three attachments.
Feofilaktova asks to help her publish her manuscript about a new system of equipment for the fishing industry. Letter about the award of the Nobel Prize in literature to Solzhenitsyn. Open Letter of V. Chalidze to the Lawyer S. Kheifets , Chalidze highlights that the question of "open trial" very much depends on the stand taken by the defense attorney. Whether or Not I Plead Guilty? Final Statement , Statements by A. Amalrik at his Sverdlovsk Trial on November Makudinova calls to raise voices in defense of her husband A. The Committee calls to restore the civil rights of the Crimean Tatars.
The journal covers issues of literature and society, issued by Ryleev Club in Moscow. The petition is addressed to the Soviet leaders, demanding freedom of religion. It informs about the instances of persecution of Cheboksary ECB believers. The petition is addressed to the Soviet leaders describing instances of persecution of the community of believers and demanding freedom of religion. An information report concerning the trial of A. Levitin-Krasnov and problems that face the attorneys defending persons judged on political clauses.
The article describes a short history and the activity of this underground organization. The essay concerns the problems of finding an accommodation and obtaining a residence permit faced by prisoners after being released. A historical essay on poetry readings on Mayakovsky square in Moscow in Memoirs about arrest, imprisonment, and release. A poem distributed as a leaflet by the author at the State Kremlin Palace on 5 December An excerpt of the research by A.
Esenin-Volpin "The conventions of civil and political rights and Soviet legislation. Bykov argues against monopoly on criticism. People's Court Sentence to V. Batshev , People's Court of Pervomaisk district in Moscow decided to exile V. Batshev from Moscow for five years under condition with compulsory employment. Memoirs on life in exile during An essay about the threat of communism because of the results of the parliamentary elections in Italy in The article published in Feniks , including editor's foreword. Research article, part 1 see AS for part 2.
Levitin-Krasnov criticizes the anti-religious books by the ex-priest E. Collection of essays on religious-philosophical themes. A Conversation of A. Levitin-Krasnov with some atheist officials on the freedom of belief and atheism in Moscow on 21 May A short essay on young atheists participating in Easter Orthodox service. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and the Spiritual Mission of a Writer , The article is written in relation to the year since the publication of Solzhenitsyn's "One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich. The Interdependence of Knowledge and Faith , ca.
П. А. Столыпин. Том 2
Remarks at a discussion in the Institute of Philosophy in Moscow, published in Feniks Part 1, including the foreword by IU. Commentary on M. Bulgakov's Novel, "The Master and Margarita," published posthumously. An essay about Soviet society, published in Feniks A speech delivered at Anna Akhmatova's funeral. The letter is written by a student of the Moscow state university.
Appeal of 82 Soviet Jews to Brother Jews , The trial of Amalrik and Ubozhko. Letter of L.
Большая Советская Энциклопедия (ЕР) | БСЭ БСЭ | download
On this stage a Sufi perceives the highest truth. The above-mentioned Sufi progress is often ascribed to all the tariqas functioning in Daghestan and in the whole North Caucasus. In fact, it is accepted only in lodges of the Naqshbandiyya Khalidiyya faction Mahmudiyya shaykhs insist that every Muslim without shaykh might be threatened unintentionally with evil forces.
Shaytan is said to lead him astray As a real shaykh is much stronger than evil forces, he is the sole person able to save murids while leading them to the right Islamic way. Following this principle, the Mahmudiyya shaykhs introduce into the brotherhood almost all who seek to join it. There is a strong controversy over these Sufi practices among living shaykhs, which constitute the core of disputes on Sufi and Muslim identity in post-socialist Daghestan.
In order to understand these disputes, principal aspects of the local Naqshbandi Sufi teaching and techniques should be considered. The performance of a silent dhikr requires a full concentration on the remembrance of God and is usually restricted to advanced students. A loud dhikr is supposed to be included in this lesson As a whole this lesson includes the following elements: 1. Such a meditation takes him from ten to fifteen minutes; 7.
In the Khalidiyya branch every rabita is bound either to the immediate Sufi master shaykh alrabita , who taught the murid the dhikr by initiation and who should be imagined as if he were physically present, or to his predecessor in the Khalidiyya silsila. The whole ritual continues from ten to fifteen minutes; 8. La ilaha illa-Llah for five hundred times; 75 9. As soon as a student has completed learning the above-mentioned techniques, he receives new lessons from his master who initiated him into tariqa.
According to the Khalidiyya tradition, students continue their Sufi practices of dhikr and rabita, in order to develop their progress on the Sufi way. On this advanced stage a murid is charged to perform so loud as silent dhikr Their rules and techniques were elaborated just in the late nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries and did not undergo significant innovations under the socialist and post-socialist periods. In this respect, recommendations of the shaykh Ilyas al-Tsudaqari are of special importance.
He distinguishes the following kinds and stages of the dhikr techniques Ilyas al-Tsudaqari, Kifayat al-murid, p. Nevertheless, as my fieldwork data show, a great number of active Khalidiyya shaykhs are not familiar with all the Sufi techniques of a silent dhikr khafi. By this reason they order their students to perform a loud dhikr jahri. Such Sufi shaykhs did not perform all the Naqshbandiyya-Khalidiyya practices belonging to this branch of the order quite nominally.
The Mahmudiyya Sufi masters have a somewhat different views regarding the rules of dhikr practices. Instead they charge them with performing the Shadhiliyya loud dhikr which is considered to be more easy and available for novices than the silent dhikr performed in the Khalidiyya. Students are recommended to carry 76 out the Shadhiliyya dhikr just after obligatory sunrise and sunset prayers. As a whole the Shadhiliyya wird as it is practised in the Mahmudiyya branch of the order includes the following actions: 1.
Names of the Khalidiyya shaykhs are replaced in it by those of Sayfullah-qadi who introduced the order in Daghestan and of the brotherhood founder Abu-l-Hasan al-Shadhili; 5. Contrary to the Khalidiyya adherents who bind it to their own shaykhs, the Shadhiliyya murids imagine both Sayfullah-qadi and Abu-l-Hasan alShadhili. Students who have just learned how to make the rabita are allowed to ignore this lesson in the wird.
Murids who wish to progress on their Sufi way, have the right to increase the number of main formulas in the Shadhiliyya wird from one to seven hundred times. Then, if a murid wants to rise to a higher degree of the Sufi path, he visits another Sufi master belonging to the Naqshbandiyya order in case his former murshid was only a Shadhiliyya shaykh.
The latter initiate him into the Naqshbandiyya order. Therefore the Shadhiliyya practices represent a kind of introductory stage in the Sufi education which aim is to prepare Sufi adepts to move to its higher Shadhiliyya level. At first, the Naqshbandiyya shaykh charges murid with reducing the number of his former Sufi 77 exercises from seven to one hundred times. At the same time he gradually initiates him into the principal Naqshbandiyya techniques. So the disciple is charged to repeat the repentance formula and that of Muhammad blessing tasliya together with the rest of the Shadhiliyya wird for five hundred times.
He also performs rabita. Following these intensified Sufi exercises which continue during two or three months murid starts to be taught in rules of the Naqshbandiyya dhikr. Principles of the Sufi education elaborated by the Mahmudiyya shaykhs show that in reality this suborder consists of two circles of followers, namely an outside broader one consisting of Shadhiliyya murids and an inner circle of Naqshbandiyya students who joined it after completing their preliminary studies led by Shadhiliyya shaykhs.
As for the silent dhikr, its techniques are quite similar in both factions of the Khalidiyya and the Mahmudiyya. It is based on Sufi treatises of the pre-Soviet Daghestani shaykhs and as a whole resembles much the same Naqshbandiyya tools as they are practised in postsocialist Central Asia The basic difference between two competing factions of the Naqshbaniyya in Daghestan concerns techniques of the remembrance of God.
While Khalidiyya shayks include in the Naqshbandiyya ritual so loud as silent forms of the dhikr, their opponents from the Mahmudiyya faction consider the loud dhikr a specific Shadhiliyya technique, though recommend it to all their novices being initiated into the Naqshbandiyya order. The collective reciting of canonical texts or the khatm litanies appears to have more similarities in both factions.
As a whole, advanced students of the Naqshbaniyya Khalidiyya and those belonging to the Khalidiyya Mahmudiyya perform the same khatm as it was defined in the Naqshbaniyya Khwajaghan. Of course, this remark is true only when speaking of those Mahmudiyya murids who have just passed from a loud Shadhiliyya dhikr to a silent one accepted in the Naqshbandiyya.
As mentioned above, techniques of the Allah remembrance in these two suborders are quite different. The performance of the Naqshbaniyya khatm requires solitude. Only followers of the Naqshbaniyya order are allowed to attend and take part in it. The performance of the Naqshbaniyya Khwajaghan litany includes the following ten elements In contrast, the Shadhiliyya khatm is open for all comers, even if they do not belong to the order. It is usually performed as follows. First, shaykh or his deputy gather his murids in a circle halqa.
Standing in the middle he starts repeating Shahada formula for many and many times attempting to establish a spiritual connection to all the participants. On the next stage of the Shadhiliyya khatm the shaykh stands up and starts calling out the word Allah, that allows him to connect spiritually to a heart of every murid. In their turn other participants stand up repeating all formulas after the shaykh and sit down upon finishing this part of the khatm.
Then all murids again stand in a circle holding hands and performing a loud dhikr, while the shaykh stands or sits in the middle and conducts the chorus. This division also much influences on the Muslim identity in post-socialist Daghestan. There was a condition that the pauper must take as much as his old tattered bag could hold.
The greed took over his conscience and he asked for more and eventually tore down the bag and forfeited every piece of coin. The painting is worthy of the story. The artist has so painstakingly produced the details; he is praiseworthy for his earnest efforts. Toggle navigation.
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